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Parts of a Flower With Their Structure and Functions

Flowers are the reproductive part of a flowering plant. They are mostly the most coloring and attractive organ of a plant body.

What are the Different Parts of a Flower

A typical diagram of a flower is divided into four main external parts: i) sepals, ii) petals, iii) stamen and, iv) carpel, each of them performing distinct functions.

When a flower has all the four floral parts, it is called a complete flower. A flower missing any one of them is called an incomplete flower.

Parts of a Flower Diagram

1. Sepals

They are modified leaves that enclose the developing flower. They are the first essential part of a flower to develop. They arise from the top of the stem.

Functions

  • Providing protection to the young buds that will give rise to flowers by forming a tightly closed area
  • Protecting the flower-buds from injury

2. Petals

They are modified leaf-like parts that surround the reproductive organs of a flower. Petals are the brightest and colorful parts of a flower that distinguish them from other parts.

Functions

  • Protecting the reproductive structures in flowers
  • Attracting pollinators like insects-such as bees and other animals-such as birds which transfer pollen from the male reproductive part to the female reproductive part of the same or different flower

3. Stamen

Male reproductive part of a flower. It consists of two main parts:

Anther – yellowish sac-like structure present at the head of the stamen.

Filament – slender stalk-like structure present at the tail of the stamen.

Functions

  • Producing and storing pollen grains (anther)
  • Acting as the part of the plant that is holding the anther and attaching it to the flower (filament)

4. Carpel

Female reproductive part of a flower that forms pistil. A pistil may contain a single carpel or multiple carpels fused together. It contains three parts:

Stigma – head of the pistil that catches pollen grains.

Style – the stalk of the pistil. When pollen grains reach stigma, a tube-like structure grows through the style called pollen tube, which reaches the ovary.

Ovary – the base of the pistil that holds the eggs or ovules, which later become the seed when one of the male reproductive cells fuses with the female reproductive cell, thus forming the embryo (fertilization).

Functions

All the different parts mentioned above play their specific roles for the carpel to function properly. Here are the basic functions:

  • Helping in receiving pollen grains and also in their germination (stigma)
  • Supporting the stigma and connecting it to the ovary (style)
  • Forming, dispersal of seeds and nourishing the embryo (ovary)

FAQs

Q.1. What are androecium and gynoecium?

Ans. The androecium is the male reproductive part of a flowering plant, which is composed of one or more stamens.

The gynoecium is the female reproductive part of a flowering plant, which is composed of one or more carpels.

Q.2. What is a unisexual flower?

Ans. When a flower has either stamens or carpels, but not both of them, it is said to be a unisexual flower. Example: papaya and coconut flower etc.

Q.3. What is a bisexual flower?

Ans. When a flower has both stamens and carpels, it is said to be a bisexual flower. Example: rose and mustard flower etc.

Q.4. Which part of a flower contains the ovary?

Ans. The ovary is the enlarged basal portion of the pistil where ovules are formed.

Article was last reviewed on Saturday, January 4, 2020

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