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Parts of a Flower With Their Structure and Functions

Flowers are the reproductive part of a flowering plant. They are the most colorful and attractive organ of a plant body.

What are the Different Parts of a Flower

A typical diagram of a flower is divided into four main parts: 1) sepals, 2) petals, 3) stamen and, 4) carpel, each of them performing distinct functions.

When a flower has all the four floral parts, it is called a complete flower. A flower missing any one of them is called an incomplete flower.

Parts of a Flower Diagram

1. Sepals

They are modified leaves that enclose the developing flower. Sepals are the first essential part that grows in a flower, arising from the top of the stem.

Functions

  • Providing protection to the young flower buds from an injury by forming a tightly closed area
  • Giving structural support to a flower

2. Petals

They are modified leaf-like parts that surround the reproductive organs of a flower. Petals are the brightest and colorful parts of a flower that distinguish them from other parts.

Functions

  • Protecting the reproductive structures in flowers
  • Attracting pollinators like insects (e.g., bees, wasps, and butterflies), birds and other small mammals to transfer pollen from male to female reproductive part of a flower

3. Stamen

It is the male reproductive part of a flower. It consists of two main parts:

a) Anther – Yellowish sac-like structure present at the head of the stamen.

b) Filament – Slender stalk-like structure present at the tail of the stamen.

Functions

  • Anther helps in producing and storing pollen grains
  • Filament holds the anther and attaches it to the flower

4. Carpel

Female reproductive part of a flower that forms pistil. A pistil may contain a single carpel or multiple carpels fused together. It contains three parts:

a) Stigma – Head of the pistil that catches pollen grains.

b) Style – The stalk of the pistil. When pollen grains reach stigma, a tube-like structure grows through the style called pollen tube, which reaches the ovary.

c) Ovary – The base of the pistil that holds the eggs or ovules. The ovary later becomes the seed when the male and female reproductive cells fuse together, thereby forming the embryo, a process called fertilization.

Functions

  • Stigma helps in receiving pollen grains and also in their germination
  • Style supports the stigma and connects it to the ovary
  • Ovary helps in developing, distributing, and nourishing the embryo

FAQs

Q.1. What are androecium and gynoecium?

Ans. The androecium is the male reproductive part of a flowering plant, which is composed of one or more stamens.

The gynoecium is the female reproductive part of a flowering plant, which is composed of one or more carpels.

Q.2. What is a unisexual flower?

Ans. When a flower has either stamens or carpels, but not both of them, it is called a unisexual flower. Example: papaya and watermelon.

Q.3. What is a bisexual flower?

Ans. When a flower has both stamens and carpels, it is called a bisexual flower. Example: rose and mustard flower.

Q.4. Which part of a flower contains the ovary?

Ans. The ovary is the enlarged basal portion of the pistil where ovules are formed.

References

  1. Flower – Toppr.com
  2. Parts of Flowers & What They Do – Sciencing.com
  3. Parts of a Flowering Plant – Thoughtco.com
  4. Flower – Britannica.com

Article was last reviewed on Monday, April 20, 2020

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