Parts of a Flower With Their Structure and Functions
Flowers are the reproductive part of a flowering plant. They are the most colorful and attractive organ of a plant body.
What are the Different Parts of a Flower
A typical diagram of a flower is divided into four main parts: 1) sepals, 2) petals, 3) stamen and, 4) carpel, each of them performing distinct functions.
When a flower has all the four floral parts, it is called a complete flower. A flower missing any one of them is called an incomplete flower.
They are modified leaves that enclose the developing flower. Sepals are the first essential part that grows in a flower, arising from the top of the stem.
- Providing protection to the young flower buds from an injury by forming a tightly closed area
- Giving structural support to a flower
They are modified leaf-like parts that surround the reproductive organs of a flower. Petals are the brightest and colorful parts of a flower that distinguish them from other parts.
- Protecting the reproductive structures in flowers
- Attracting pollinators like insects (e.g., bees, wasps, and butterflies), birds and other small mammals to transfer pollen from male to female reproductive part of a flower
It is the male reproductive part of a flower. It consists of two main parts:
a) Anther – Yellowish sac-like structure present at the head of the stamen.
b) Filament – Slender stalk-like structure present at the tail of the stamen.
- Anther helps in producing and storing pollen grains
- Filament holds the anther and attaches it to the flower
Female reproductive part of a flower that forms pistil. A pistil may contain a single carpel or multiple carpels fused together. It contains three parts:
a) Stigma – Head of the pistil that catches pollen grains.
b) Style – The stalk of the pistil. When pollen grains reach stigma, a tube-like structure grows through the style called pollen tube, which reaches the ovary.
c) Ovary – The base of the pistil that holds the eggs or ovules. The ovary later becomes the seed when the male and female reproductive cells fuse together, thereby forming the embryo, a process called fertilization.
- Stigma helps in receiving pollen grains and also in their germination
- Style supports the stigma and connects it to the ovary
- Ovary helps in developing, distributing, and nourishing the embryo
Q.1. What are androecium and gynoecium?
Ans. The androecium is the male reproductive part of a flowering plant, which is composed of one or more stamens.
The gynoecium is the female reproductive part of a flowering plant, which is composed of one or more carpels.
Q.2. What is a unisexual flower?
Ans. When a flower has either stamens or carpels, but not both of them, it is called a unisexual flower. Example: papaya and watermelon.
Q.3. What is a bisexual flower?
Ans. When a flower has both stamens and carpels, it is called a bisexual flower. Example: rose and mustard flower.
Q.4. Which part of a flower contains the ovary?
Ans. The ovary is the enlarged basal portion of the pistil where ovules are formed.
Article was last reviewed on Friday, July 3, 2020