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The Main Parts of a Plant With Their Functions

A plant is a living organism that produces food for themselves and acts as the primary source of nutrition for all life forms on earth. Plants are also the only source of oxygen in nature.

What are the Different Parts of a Plant

Broadly, plants have two organ systems: A) the root system and B) the shoot system.

A typical diagram of a plant body consists of three parts: 1) roots, 2) stems, and 3) leaves, each having specialized functions. Apart from these basic parts, a flowering plant also contains 4) flowers and 5) fruits.

The root system covers the underground parts of a plant, which include the roots, tubers, and rhizomes, whereas the shoot system consists of parts found above the ground, such as leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits.

Parts of a Plant Diagram

1. Roots

It is the part that lies below the surface of the soil. The top part of a root (root apex) is covered by a covering known as root cap.

Functions

  • Absorbing water and minerals from the soil
  • Storing food for future use
  • Producing plant growth hormones
  • Anchoring the plant firmly to the soil and providing support
  • Developing new plants from the roots of the old plant (vegetative reproduction)

2. Stems

They are found above the ground and are structurally divided into nodes and internodes. The regions where leaves are found are known as nodes, whereas the areas in-between the nodes are called internodes.

Functions

  • Providing strength and support to buds, flowers, leaves, and fruits
  • Storing food mainly in the form of starch
  • Transporting food, water, and minerals to all parts of the plant body
  • Developing new plants from the stem of the old plant (vegetative reproduction)

3. Leaves

They are mostly found above the ground and attached to the stem. A leaf consists of three main parts: i) the petiole, ii) leaf base, and iii) lamina or leaf blade.

Functions

  • Making food for the plant with the help of sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water through photosynthesis
  • Helping in reproduction such as in Bryophyllum, a group of sprout leaf plants
  • Helping in evaporation from the aerial parts of the plant by transpiration

Apart from these main functions, leaves of some plants are modified to form tendrils, that help in climbing (e.g., pea plant) or spines, helping in protection (e.g., cactus). Some leaves may turn fleshy to store food (e.g., onion plant).

4. Flowers

They are the most colorful and attractive parts of a plant. A flower contains four main parts:

a) Sepals: Green parts of a flower found below the petals that protect flower buds from injury.

b) Petals: Colorful parts of a flower found above the sepals that help in pollination.

c) Stamens: Consists of an anther and a filament. They are the male reproductive part of a plant producing male sex cells or spermatia.

d) Carpel: Consists of stigma, style, and ovary. They are the female reproductive part of a plant producing female sex cells or ovules.

Functions

  • Helping in the sexual reproduction of plants
  • Stimulating pollination in plants and fertilization of the ovule

5. Fruits

They are the ripened ovary found in flower after fertilization. The ovules after fertilization make the seed, which is then fertilized to form new plants.

Functions

  • Protecting the growing seeds
  • Helping in the dispersal of seeds and thus in plant reproduction

Thus although each part of a plant has its specific functions, they all work in combination to provide distinct advantages in plant growth and survival.

FAQs

Q.1. Which part of the plant attracts pollinators?

Ans. The colorful part of a flower called petals helps to attract pollinators in a plant.

Q.2. Which part of the plant prepares food for its survival?

Ans. The leaves of a plant are responsible for making its own food for survival.

Q.3. Which part of a plant produces pollen grains?

Ans. Stamen is the pollen-producing part of a flowering plant.

Q.4. What are the edible parts of a plant?

Ans. The fruits (banana, tomato, etc.), seeds (wheat, maize, etc.), leaves (spinach, cabbage, etc.), roots (carrots, beets, etc.), flowers (broccoli), and stems (ginger) are the edible parts of plants.

Q.5. Which part of the plant is a potato?

Ans. Potato is the stem of a potato plant.

Q.6. What part of the plant is broccoli?

Ans. Broccoli is the under-developed flower and the stalk of the broccoli plant.

References

  1. Parts of Plants and Their Functions – Toppr.com
  2. Plant Parts – Marinmg.ucanr.edu
  3. Four Main Parts of a Plant – Sciencing.com
  4. Parts of a Flowering Plant – Thoughtco.com

Article was last reviewed on Friday, April 17, 2020

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